CSU concealed carry ban

Colorado Supreme Court takes aim at gun rights, agrees to take CU Gun Ban case

No man’s life, liberty, property, or constitutional rights are safe while the Colorado Supreme Court is in session.”  (With apologies to Mark Twain)

Clear The Bench Colorado has tracked the threat posed by the Colorado Supreme Court to our constitutional right to keep and bear arms in Colorado for some time (including attempts to levy what amounts to an unconstitutional poll tax on firearms sales and permits, the CU Regents ban on responsible and licensed concealed-carry and the more recent attempted CSU campus ban on concealed carry, along with debates and recent developments in both cases).  After the CU Board of Regents voted to appeal the ruling by the Colorado Court of Appeals which in April struck down the University of Colorado ban on licensed permit-holders carrying firearms on campus (Court tosses CU gun ban), we warned Coloradans that another attack on our constitutional and statutory rights was coming.

On Monday, the opening salvo of that attack arrived, as the Colorado Supreme Court agreed to consider the CU Regents appeal of last April’s ruling by the Colorado Court of Appeals (which upheld state law and the rights of Colorado citizens against CU’s illegal concealed carry ban covering all campus areas).

The CU Board of Regents legal brief to the Colorado Supreme Court is due in approximately 40 days; the brief of the respondents (SCCC, represented by the Mountain States Legal Foundation) along with any amicus curiae (“friend of court”) briefs are due 30 days after that.

The composition of the court (and thus, the likelihood of the law being followed in ruling on this case) may experience a change as a result of the intervening elections…

As Clear The Bench Colorado noted at the time, the Court of Appeals ruling was both legally sound and clear in its rejection of the CU Board’s assertion of extra-constitutional authority:

The Colorado Court of Appeals ruled Thursday that the University of Colorado has no authority to bar students or visitors from lawfully carrying guns on campus. [Ed. emphasis added]

Note that the CU Board of Regents is asserting its authority to ban licensed concealed carry not just by students, but by ANY responsible adult who has undergone the background checks and training (and mounds of paperwork) to apply for and receive a license to carry concealed – on ANY CU property.

The Colorado Court of Appeals ruling in the case highlights the critical importance of judges who rule in accordance with the law (especially the Constitution, which exists to protect the rights of individuals and limit the power of government) and underlines the fact that Colorado does have many such judges at various levels (including Judge Christine Habas, who ruled – correctly – that the Mill Levy Tax Freeze” was unconstitutional before being overturned by the Mullarkey Majority).  Unfortunately, we just don’t have enough of them (good judges, that is) on the Colorado Supreme Court.

The Colorado Court of Appeals ruling in the case also substantiated our assertion that the CU and CSU bans violate “the clear letter and intent of the statute authorizing statewide standards and universal application for concealed-carry permits

18-12-214. Authority granted by permit – carrying restrictions.

(1) (a) A permit to carry a concealed handgun authorizes the permittee to carry a concealed handgun in all areas of the state, except as specifically limited in this section.

The Colorado Court of Appeals could not have been more clear in upholding that view, and went further in upholding the constitutional right of Colorado citizens to bear arms in self-defense:

Because the statute expressly applies to “all areas of the state,” we conclude that plaintiffs have stated a claim for relief under the CCA. We further conclude that plaintiffs have stated a claim for relief under Colorado Constitution article II, section 13, which affords individuals the right to bear arms in self-defense.

The Colorado Supreme Court decision to hear the CU Regents appeal of this ruling puts another set of Coloradans’ constitutional rights at risk.

There is a great deal more at stake than the relatively narrow issue of whether responsible adults can be denied the exercise of their rights (licensed concealed-carry pursuant to state law) – as if that wasn’t important enough.  In hearing the case, the Colorado Supreme Court will also rule on whether state law, as a matter of principle and precedent, can be ignored by certain quasi-governmental entities (such as the CU Board of Regents).  Most importantly, the Colorado Supreme Court will rule on the standard of review for laws regulating the right to bear arms (or any constitutional rights) in Colorado.

The Colorado Court of Appeals held (correctly, in my view and the view of most legal scholars) that the standard of review for assessing the law, and CU’s attempt to ignore state law via an illegal gun ban (and for reviewing any law regulating any constitutional right) is the ”reasonable exercise” standard (in other words, is the law a “reasonable exercise” of the government’s authority to restrict a constitutional right).  The CU Regents argue (and the Colorado Supreme Court’s Mullarkey Majority has in the past agreed) that the standard for legal review should be the ”rational basis” standard of review (which gives virtually unlimited deference, and leeway, to the ability of government to pass laws restricting the ability of individuals to exercise their constitutional rights).  Adoption of that standard in this case would set a very dangerous precedent, and would effectively nullify the Colorado Constitution’s recognition of an individual’s right to keep and bear arms.

This case – and so many others of this nature – isn’t about guns; it’s about freedoms.  Allowing the government to pass laws further restricting our rights (or allowing courts to unilaterally impose new laws or restrictions by re-writing or interpreting our rights out of existence) runs counter to the very foundations and ideals of this country.

Our Constitution is the Citizens’ rulebook for government – restricting the powers and authority of government to rule our lives.  It is what distinguishes us as Americans from the historical example of every other nation on earth: we are Citizens, not subjects.

Our courts – sworn to uphold our Constitution and act as protectors of our constitutional rights – must occasionally be reminded of that fact.

Stick to your guns – Defend YOUR constitutional and statutory rights, and exercise YOUR right to vote “NO” on retaining the 4 (er, 3 remaining) ‘unjust justices’ of the Mullarkey Majority (Michael Bender, Alex Martinez, Nancy Rice, and Chief Justice Mary Mullarkey) who need YOUR approval to continue taking away your constitutional rights: your right of self-defense, your right to vote on tax increases, your right to defend your home or business from government abuse of eminent domain powers, and your right to enjoy the benefits of the rule of law, not rule by activist, agenda-driven “justices.”

Support Clear The Bench Colorado with your comments (Sound Off!), your contributions, and your “NO” vote in November 2010 to keep these unjust justices from returning for another 10-year term!

CU Board of Regents votes to violate law, student and citizen rights in appealing gun ban reversal to Colorado Supreme Court

Clear The Bench Colorado has tracked the threat posed by the Colorado Supreme Court to our constitutional right to keep and bear arms in Colorado for some time (including attempts to levy what amounts to an unconstitutional poll tax on firearms sales and permits, and of course the CU Regents ban on responsible and licensed concealed-carry and the more recent CSU campus ban on concealed carry, along with debates and recent developments in both cases).  Today, in another momentous development in Colorado Politics, the CU Board of Regents voted to appeal the ruling by the Colorado Court of Appeals which in April struck down the University of Colorado ban on licensed permit-holders carrying firearms on campus (Court tosses CU gun ban).

As Clear The Bench Colorado noted at the time, the Court of Appeals ruling was both legally sound and clear in its rejection of the CU Board’s assertion of extra-constitutional authority:

The Colorado Court of Appeals ruled Thursday that the University of Colorado has no authority to bar students or visitors from lawfully carrying guns on campus.

The Colorado Court of Appeals ruling in the case highlights the critical importance of judges who rule in accordance with the law (especially the Constitution, which exists to protect the rights of individuals and limit the power of government) and underlines the fact that Colorado does have many such judges at various levels (including Judge Christine Habas, who ruled – correctly – that the Mill Levy Tax Freeze” was unconstitutional before being overturned by the Mullarkey Majority).  Unfortunately, we just don’t have enough of them on the Colorado Supreme Court.

The Colorado Court of Appeals ruling in the case also substantiated our assertion that the CU and CSU bans violate “the clear letter and intent of the statute authorizing statewide standards and universal application for concealed-carry permits

18-12-214. Authority granted by permit – carrying restrictions.

(1) (a) A permit to carry a concealed handgun authorizes the permittee to carry a concealed handgun in all areas of the state, except as specifically limited in this section.

The Colorado Court of Appeals could not have been more clear in upholding that view, and went further in upholding the constitutional right of Colorado citizens to bear arms in self-defense:

Because the statute expressly applies to “all areas of the state,” we conclude that plaintiffs have stated a claim for relief under the CCA. We further conclude that plaintiffs have stated a claim for relief under Colorado Constitution article II, section 13, which affords individuals the right to bear arms in self-defense.

The lawlessness of the CU Board members voting with the majority – voting to violate the clear letter of the law, and voting to violate the legal rights of its students along with the rights of any citizens who might find themselves within the (open to the public) campus area – is betting on a similar lawlessness on the Colorado Supreme Court, which has consistently demonstrated a contempt for the clear letter of the Colorado Constitution and for the rule of law, generally.  The case serves as a powerful reminder that our constitutional and statutory rights are under constant threat of being “interpreted” out of existence by the current majority on the Colorado Supreme Court.

Stick to your guns – Defend YOUR constitutional and statutory rights, and exercise YOUR right to vote “NO” on retaining the 4 (er, 3 remaining) ‘unjust justices’ of the Mullarkey Majority (Michael Bender, Alex Martinez, Nancy Rice, and Chief Justice Mary Mullarkey) who need YOUR approval to continue taking away your constitutional rights: your right of self-defense, your right to vote on tax increases, your right to defend your home or business from government abuse of eminent domain powers, and your right to enjoy the benefits of the rule of law, not rule by activist, agenda-driven “justices.”  Support Clear The Bench Colorado with your comments (Sound Off!), your contributions, and your “NO” vote in November 2010 to keep these unjust justices from returning for another 10-year term!

Unconstitutional College Campus Gun Bans in retreat – CSU rescinds ban after CU loses case, but counterattack may still push back to Colorado Supreme Court

Clear The Bench Colorado has tracked the threat posed by the Colorado Supreme Court to our constitutional right to keep and bear arms in Colorado for some time (including attempts to levy what amounts to an unconstitutional poll tax on firearms sales and permits, and of course the CU Regents ban on responsible and licensed concealed-carry and the more recent CSU campus ban on concealed carry, along with debates and recent developments in both cases).  Today, in another stunning development in Colorado Politics and another great victory for individual rights and the rule of law, the CSU Board of Governors rescinded the (illegal) ban on licensed concealed firearms carry on campus (finally complying with state law).

As the CSU spokesperson explained, the Governing Board really had no choice, in light of the recent Court of Appeals ruling in Students for Concealed Carry on Campus v. Regents of the University of Colorado. There, the unanimous three-judge panel ruled that Colorado’s Concealed Handgun Act, which is explicitly preemptive, had no implicit exception for state institutions of higher education. The University of Colorado has not yet announced whether it will petition the Colorado Supreme Court for certiorari in that case.

Although this may be the start of a new trend (a view taken in an editorial by the Colorado Springs Gazette, “College gun bans may start crumbling“) – and we would join them in applauding such a development – we must remember that our constitutional and statutory rights are under constant threat of being “interpreted” out of existence by the current majority on the Colorado Supreme Court, which has consistently demonstrated a contempt for the clear letter of the Colorado Constitution and for the rule of law, generally.  This victory for individual rights remains just one legal challenge away from being set aside – and that challenge may yet be coming:

The CU Board of Regents has not rescinded its ban and may appeal the appellate court’s decision to the Colorado Supreme Court.

Stick to your guns – Defend YOUR Constitution, and exercise YOUR right to vote “NO” on retaining the four unjust justices of the Mullarkey Majority (Justices Michael Bender, Alex Martinez, Nancy Rice, and Chief Justice Mary Mullarkey) who need YOUR approval to continue taking away your constitutional rights: your right of self-defense, your right to vote on tax increases, your right to defend your home or business from government abuse of eminent domain powers, and your right to enjoy the benefits of the rule of law, not rule by activist, agenda-driven “justices.”  Support Clear The Bench Colorado with your comments (Sound Off!), your contributions, and your “NO” vote in November 2010 to keep these unjust justices from returning for another 10-year term!

CU Gun Ban overturned by Colorado Court of Appeals; next stop Colorado Supreme Court?

Clear The Bench Colorado has tracked the threat posed by the Colorado Supreme Court to our constitutional right to keep and bear arms in Colorado for some time (including attempts to levy what amounts to an unconstitutional poll tax on firearms sales and permits, and of course the CU Regents ban on responsible and licensed concealed-carry and the more recent CSU campus ban on concealed carry, along with debates and recent developments in both cases).  In a stunning development in Colorado Politics and a great victory for individual rights and the rule of law, the Colorado Court of Appeals yesterday struck down the University of Colorado ban on licensed permit-holders carrying firearms on campus (Court tosses CU gun ban).

The Colorado Court of Appeals ruled Thursday that the University of Colorado has no authority to bar students or visitors from lawfully carrying guns on campus.

The Colorado Court of Appeals ruling in the case highlights the critical importance of judges who rule in accordance with the law (especially the Constitution, which exists to protect the rights of individuals and limit the power of government) and underlines the fact that Colorado does have many such judges at various levels (including Judge Christine Habas, who ruled – correctly – that the Mill Levy Tax Freeze” was unconstitutional before being overturned by the Mullarkey Majority).  Unfortunately, we just don’t have enough of them on the Colorado Supreme Court.

The Colorado Court of Appeals ruling in the case substantiated our assertion that the CU and CSU bans violate “the clear letter and intent of the statute authorizing statewide standards and universal application for concealed-carry permits

18-12-214. Authority granted by permit – carrying restrictions.

(1) (a) A permit to carry a concealed handgun authorizes the permittee to carry a concealed handgun in all areas of the state, except as specifically limited in this section.

The Colorado Court of Appeals could not have been more clear in upholding that view, and went further in upholding the constitutional right of Colorado citizens to bear arms in self-defense:

Because the statute expressly applies to “all areas of the state,” we conclude that plaintiffs have stated a claim for relief under the CCA. We further conclude that plaintiffs have stated a claim for relief under Colorado Constitution article II, section 13, which affords individuals the right to bear arms in self-defense.

However, although the case represents a substantial victory for individual rights and the rule of law, it is just one battle; the war is far from over, as the Denver Post article points out:

After Thursday’s ruling, the lawsuit may go back to district court, or CU can appeal the decision to the Colorado Supreme Court. The university could also repeal the ban if it so chooses.

Ken McConnellogue, spokesman for the University of Colorado system, said school officials are weighing options. Regents will likely discuss the matter at a regularly scheduled board meeting next week.

CU is being urged by a “national anti-gun group” to appeal the case, which may yet end up before a Colorado Supreme Court with a demonstrated track record of hostility to the constitutional rights of individuals in Colorado to bear arms in defense of themselves and others.

Stick to your guns – Defend YOUR Constitution, and exercise YOUR right to vote “NO” on retaining the four unjust justices of the Mullarkey Majority (Justices Michael Bender, Alex Martinez, Nancy Rice, and Chief Justice Mary Mullarkey) who need YOUR approval to continue taking away your constitutional rights: your right of self-defense, your right to vote on tax increases, your right to defend your home or business from government abuse of eminent domain powers, and your right to enjoy the benefits of the rule of law, not rule by activist, agenda-driven “justices.”  Support Clear The Bench Colorado with your comments (Sound Off!), your contributions, and your “NO” vote in November 2010 to keep these unjust justices from returning for another 10-year term!

Updates on the Unconstitutional College Campus Gun Bans – headed for a showdown at the Colorado Supreme Court?

Clear The Bench Colorado has previously noted that a recent decision by the CSU Board of Governors to deprive Concealed-Carry Weapons (CCW) permit-holders of their legal rights under Colorado statute on CSU campuses is virtually certain to be legally challenged and ultimately decided (as a matter of Colorado law, regulating concealed carry) by the Colorado Supreme Court.

Recent statements by Larimer County Sheriff Jim Alderden that he would refuse to prosecute any licensed permit-holder detained or sanctioned by University enforcement officers, because any such action would violate state law as well as his oath to uphold the Federal and state Constitution and Colorado statute, has drawn additional attention to the issue.

Sheriff Alderden recently appeared on the Independent Thinking television program to discuss the issue of “Guns on Campus” with host Jon Caldara and leftist Denver Post columnist Mike Littwin (the CSU Board refused to appear in defense of their policy decision, probably on the advise of legal counsel in order to avoid making self-incriminating statements).

In this segment (number 2 of 3 total), Sheriff Alderden reiterates the fact that the CSU gun ban violates state law:

(At approximately the 7 minute mark, Sheriff Alderden gets to the crux of the matter:
“The law says that if you have a Concealed Carry Permit, you CAN carry on campus… that’s what the statute says.”)

18-12-214. Authority granted by permit – carrying restrictions.

  (1) (a) A permit to carry a concealed handgun authorizes the permittee to carry a concealed handgun in all areas of the state, except as specifically limited in this section. …  A local government does not have authority to adopt or enforce an ordinance or resolution that would conflict with any provision of this part. (emphasis added)

The ONLY hope for this clearly unconstitutional ban to withstand the inevitable legal challenge – and the ongoing legal challenge to the CU ban – is if the Colorado Supreme Court refuses to uphold the law (certainly not impossible, given the repeatedly demonstrated anti-gun bias and generally anti-constitutional predilections of the Mullarkey Majority which dominates the 7-member court).

Meanwhile, the CU Regents ban on responsible and licensed concealed-carry has already been challenged by students from different CU campuses; although a lower court judge dismissed the case on a technicality, the case is now coming before the Colorado Court of Appeals (one level shy of the Colorado Supreme Court).  Oral arguments in the case begin this coming Tuesday (23 March) starting at 1:30 PM (those with an interest in upholding the constitutional right to keep and bear arms in Colorado may wish to appear in (polite and civil) witness to the proceedings.

Ultimately, these cases are likely to be decided by the Colorado Supreme Court; given the current majority, this cannot be an entirely encouraging prospect for friends of liberty and defenders of our constitutional rights. 

Fortunately, friends of liberty and the constitutional right to keep and bear arms in Colorado can “head ‘em off at the pass” in November 2010 by voting to REMOVE FOUR of the most anti-constitutional justices on the Colorado Supreme Court (Justices Michael Bender, Alex Martinez, Nancy Rice, and Chief Justice Mary Mullarkey) BEFORE the challenge comes to a final resolution before the court.

Freedom isn’t Free – Defend YOUR Constitution, and exercise YOUR right to vote “NO” on retaining the four unjust justices of the Mullarkey Majority (Justices Michael Bender, Alex Martinez, Nancy Rice, and Chief Justice Mary Mullarkey) who need YOUR approval to continue taking away your constitutional rights: your right to vote on tax increases, your right to defend your homes and business from seizure by rapacious governments, and your right to enjoy the benefits of the rule of law, not rule by activist, agenda-driven “justices.”  Support Clear The Bench Colorado with your comments (Sound Off!), your contributions, and your “NO” vote against retaining these unjust justices in November 2010!

Clear The Bench Colorado Director Matt Arnold presents the case for voting out four Colorado Supreme Court justices in Nov 2010 at Election 2010 Kickoff event Saturday morning

Clear The Bench Colorado Director Matt Arnold kicks off the Election 2010 cycle by joining a veritable who’s who of Colorado political figures  between 9:30AM and 1PM Saturday Jan. 16th at Koelbel Library in Centennial (5955 South Holly Street) for the Election 2010 Kickoff event.

Join Matt and other prominent politicos at Saturday morning’s meeting to learn more about the Mullarkey Court’s repeated assaults on the Colorado Constitution, the resulting impact to your wallet, the degradation or outright elimination of YOUR constitutional rights, and what you can do about it.

Learn more about how – and why –  you can and should exercise YOUR right to vote “NO” on retaining the four unjust justices of the Mullarkey Majority (Justices Michael Bender, Alex Martinez, Nancy Rice, and Chief Justice Mary Mullarkey) who need YOUR approval to keep taking away your constitutional rights: your right to vote on tax increases, your right to defend your homes and business from seizure by rapacious governments, and your right to enjoy the benefits of the rule of law, not rule by activist, agenda-driven Colorado Supreme Court “justices.”  Support Clear The Bench Colorado with your comments (Sound Off!), your contributions, and your “NO” vote on retaining unjust justices in 2010!

Clear The Bench Colorado Director Matt Arnold discusses drive to remove four Colorado Supreme Court justices with former Fort Collins Major Ray Martinez on “Saturday’s Opinion” radio show

Clear The Bench Colorado Director Matt Arnold starts off the new year by joining former Fort Collins Mayor Ray Martinez on his “Saturday’s Opinion” radio show between noon and 2PM Saturday Jan. 2nd (tune in to 1310 AM KFKA or listen in live via streaming online) to discuss the Colorado Supreme Court Mullarkey Majority’s repeated assaults on the constitutional rights of Colorado citizens, the resulting impact to your wallet, and what you can do about it.  Call in to the show after the opening segment with your questions or comments at 970-353-1310 or 877-353-1310.

Tune in (and call in) to learn more about why you should exercise YOUR right to vote “NO” on retaining the four unjust justices of the Mullarkey Majority (Justices Michael Bender, Alex Martinez, Nancy Rice, and Chief Justice Mary Mullarkey) who need YOUR approval to continue taking away your rights: your right to vote on tax increases, your right to defend your homes and business from seizure by rapacious governments, and your right to enjoy the benefits of the rule of law, not rule by activist, agenda-driven “justices.”  Support Clear The Bench Colorado with your voice (Sound Off!), your contributions, and your “NO” vote on retaining these unjust justices in November 2010!

Clear The Bench Colorado Director Matt Arnold discusses recent Colorado Supreme Court rulings on “Seng Center” radio show

Clear The Bench Colorado Director Matt Arnold joins Jimmy Sengenberger on his “Seng Center” radio show Thursday at 6PM (KRCX 93.9 FM or online at regis.edu/krcx) to discuss the Mullarkey Court’s repeated assaults on the constitutional rights of Colorado citizens.

If you missed the broadcast, check out the podcasted show online – shows are posted every weekend at www.SengCenter.com

Tune in to learn more about why you should exercise YOUR right to vote “NO” on retaining the four unjust justices of the Mullarkey Majority (Justices Michael Bender, Alex Martinez, Nancy Rice, and Chief Justice Mary Mullarkey) who need YOUR approval to continue taking away your rights: your right to vote on tax increases, your right to defend your homes and business from seizure by rapacious governments, and your right to enjoy the benefits of the rule of law, not rule by activist, agenda-driven “justices.”  Support Clear The Bench Colorado with your voice (Sound Off!), your contributions, and your “NO” vote on retaining unjust justices in 2010!

Challenges to Campus Concealed-Carry Bans at CU, CSU will likely end up before Colorado Supreme Court

Friday’s vote by the CSU System Board to institute a “weapons control policy” on campus – essentially, implementing a ban on legal concealed carry of firearms by licensed permit-holders – joins a similar ban by the University of Colorado Board of Regents as policies virtually certain to be legally challenged and ultimately decided by the Colorado Supreme Court.

The CU Regents ban on responsible and licensed concealed-carry has already been challenged by students from different CU campuses; although a lower court judge dismissed the case on a technicality, it is now winding its way through the appeals process, and will almost certainly end up before the Colorado Supreme Court for a final decision.

The CSU ban stands on even shakier legal grounds than the CU ban – which has survived so far solely on the basis of the University of Colorado’s unique charter in which the General Assembly granted its ELECTED Board of Regents autonomous authority over all operations of CU’s campuses.  (CSU does NOT enjoy a similar “special” status).  Any legal challenge to the CSU ban has strong legal merit based on the clear letter and intent of the statute authorizing statewide standards and universal application for concealed-carry permits:

18-12-214. Authority granted by permit – carrying restrictions.

  (1) (a) A permit to carry a concealed handgun authorizes the permittee to carry a concealed handgun in all areas of the state, except as specifically limited in this section. …  A local government does not have authority to adopt or enforce an ordinance or resolution that would conflict with any provision of this part. (emphasis added)

The ONLY hope for this clearly unconstitutional ban to withstand the inevitable legal challenge – and the ongoing legal challenge to the CU ban – is if the Colorado Supreme Court refuses to follow the law (certainly not impossible, given the predilections of the Mullarkey Majority which dominates the 7-member court).

Fortunately, friends of liberty and the constitutional right to keep and bear arms can “head ‘em off at the pass” in November 2010 by voting to REMOVE FOUR of the most anti-constitutional justices on the Colorado Supreme Court (Justices Michael Bender, Alex Martinez, Nancy Rice, and Chief Justice Mary Mullarkey) BEFORE the challenge comes to a final resolution before the court.

Freedom isn’t Free – Defend YOUR Constitution, and exercise YOUR right to vote “NO” on retaining the four unjust justices of the Mullarkey Majority (Justices Michael Bender, Alex Martinez, Nancy Rice, and Chief Justice Mary Mullarkey) who need YOUR approval to continue taking away your constitutional rights: your right to vote on tax increases, your right to defend your homes and business from seizure by rapacious governments, and your right to enjoy the benefits of the rule of law, not rule by activist, agenda-driven “justices.”  Support Clear The Bench Colorado with your comments (Sound Off!), your contributions, and your “NO” vote on retaining these unjust justices in 2010!

Archives